The Spiritual Path of Islam
by Abul Ala Maududi
What is the spiritual path in Islam and what is its
place in the life as a whole? To answer this it is necessary to study carefully the
difference between the Islamic concept of spirituality and that of other religions and
ideologies. Without a clear understanding of this difference it often happens that, when
talking about the spirituality in Islam, many of the vague notions associated with the
word spiritual unconsciously come to mind; it then becomes difficult for one
to comprehend that this spirituality of Islam not only transcends the dualism of spirit
and matter but is the nucleus of its integrated and unified concept of life.
This is a new and revised translation of
a talk given by the author on Radio Pakistan, Lahore on 16th March, 1948.
The idea which has influenced most the climate of
philosophical and religious thought is that body and soul are mutually antagonistic, and
can develop only at each others expense. For the soul, the body is a prison and the
activities of daily life are the shackles which keep it in bondage and arrest its growth.
This has inevitably led to the universe being divided into the spiritual and the secular.
Those who chose the secular path were convinced that
they could not meet the demands of spirituality, and thus they led highly material and
hedonistic lives. All spheres of worldly activity, whether social, political, economic or
cultural, were deprived of the light of spirituality; injustice and tyranny were the
Conversely, those who wanted to tread the path of
spiritual excellence came to see themselves as noble outcasts from the world.
They believed that it was impossible for spiritual growth to be compatible with a
normal life. In their view physical self-denial and mortification of the flesh
were necessary for the development and perfection of the spirit. They invented spiritual
exercises and ascetic practices which killed physical desires and dulled the bodys
senses. They regarded forests, mountains and other solitary places as ideal for spiritual
development because the hustle and bustle of life would not interfere with their
meditations. They could not conceive of spiritual development except through withdrawal
from the world.
This conflict of body and soul resulted in the
evolution of two different ideals for the perfection of man. One was that man should be
surrounded by all possible material comforts and regard himself as nothing but an animal.
Men learnt to fly like birds, swim like fish, run like horses and even terrorize and
destroy like wolves ¾ but they did not learn how to live like noble human beings. The
other was that the senses should be not only subdued and conquered but extra-sensory
powers awakened and the limitations of the sensory world done away with. With these new
conquests men would be able to hear distant voices like powerful wireless sets, see remote
objects as one does with a telescope, and develop powers through which the mere touch of
their hand or a passing glance would heal the unhealable.
The Islamic viewpoint differs radically from these
approaches. According to Islam, Allah has appointed the human soul as His Khalifah
(vicegerent) in this world. He has invested it with a certain authority, and given it
certain responsibilities and obligations for the fulfillment of which He has endowed it
with the best and most suitable physical frame. The body has been created with the sole
object of allowing the soul to use it in the exercise of its authority and the fulfillment
of its duties and responsibilities. The body is not a prison for the soul, but its
workshop or factory; and if the soul is to grow and develop, it is only through this
workshop. Consequently, this world is not a place of punishment in which the human soul
unfortunately finds itself, but a field in which Allah has sent it to work and do
its duty towards Him.
So spiritual development should not take the form of
a man turning away from this workshop and retreating into a corner. Rather, man should
live and work in it, and give the best account of himself that he can. It is in the nature
of an examination for him; every aspect and sphere of life is, as it were, a question
paper: the home, the family, the neighborhood, the society, the market-place, the office,
the factory, the school, the law courts, the police station, the parliament, the peace
conference and the battlefield, all represent question papers which man has been called
upon to answer. If he leaves most of the answer-book blank, he is bound to fail the
examination. Success and development are only possible if man devotes his whole life to
this examination and attempts to answer all the question papers he can.
Islam rejects and condemns the ascetic view of life,
and proposes a set of methods and processes for the spiritual development of man, not
outside this world but inside it. the real place for the growth of the spirit is in the
midst of life and not in solitary places of spiritual hibernation.
We shall now discuss how Islam judges the
development or decay of the soul. In his capacity as the vicegerent (Khalifah) of
God, man is answerable to Him for all his activities. It is his duty to use all the powers
which he has been given in accordance with the Divine will. He should utilize to the
fullest extent all the faculties and potentialities bestowed upon him for seeking Allahs
approval. In his dealings with other people he should behave in such a way as to try to
please Allah. In brief, all his energies should be directed towards regulating the
affairs of this world in the way in which Allah wants them to be regulated. The
better a man does this, with a sense of responsibility, obedience and humility, and with
the object of seeking the pleasure of the Lord, the nearer will he be to Allah. In
Islam, spiritual development is synonymous with nearness to Allah. Similarly, he
will not be able to get near to Allah if he is lazy and disobedient. And distance
from Allah signifies, in Islam, the spiritual fall and decay of man.
From the Islamic point of view, therefore, the
sphere of activity of the religious man and the secular man is the same. Not only will
both work in the same spheres; the religious man will work with greater enthusiasm than
the secular man. The man of religion will be as active as the man of the world ¾ indeed,
more active ¾ in his domestic and social life, which extends from the confines of the
household to the market square, and even to international conferences.
What will distinguish their actions will be
the nature of their relationship with Allah and the aims behind their actions.
Whatever a religious man does, will be done with the feeling that he is answerable to Allah,
that he must try to secure Divine pleasure, that his actions must be in accordance with Allahs
laws. A secular person will be indifferent towards Allah and will be guided in his
actions only by his personal motives. This difference makes the whole of the material life
of a man of religion a totally spiritual venture, and the whole of the life of a secular
person an existence devoid of the spark of spirituality.
The Road to
The first necessity for progression along the path
of spiritual development is MAN (faith). The mind and heart of a man should always be
aware: Allah alone is His Master, Sovereign and Deity; seeking His pleasure is the
aim of all his endeavors; and His commands alone are the commands that are to be obeyed.
This should be a firm conviction, based not merely on the intellect, but also on
acceptance by the will. The stronger and deeper this conviction, the more profound a
mans faith will be.
The second stage is that of obedience (it~
at), meaning that man gives up his independence and accepts subservience to Allah.
This subservience is called § slam (submission) in the language of the Qur~ n.
Thus, man should not only acknowledge Allah as his Lord and Sovereign but should
actually submit before Him and fashion his entire life in obedience to Him.
The third stage is that of taqw~ (Allah-consciousness).
It consists in a practical manifestation of ones faith in Allah in ones
daily life. Taqw~ also means desisting from everything which Allah has
forbidden or has disapproved of; man must be in a state of readiness to undertake all that
Allah has commanded and to observe the distinctions between lawful and unlawful,
right and wrong, and good and bad in life.
The last and the highest stage is that of ihs~ n
(godliness) It signifies that man has attained highest excellence in words, deeds and
thoughts, identifying his will with the will of Allah and harmonizing it, to the
best of his knowledge and ability, with the Divine will. He thus begins to like what is
liked by the Lord and to dislike what He dislikes. Man should then not only avoid evil,
for it displeases his Lord, but should use all his powers to eradicate it from the face of
the earth; he should not be content with adorning himself with the good which Allah
wants to flourish but should also strive to attain and propagate it in the world, even at
the cost of his life. A man who reaches this stage attains the highest pinnacle of
spirituality and is nearest to Allah.
This path of spiritual development is not meant for
individuals only but for communities and nations as well. Like individuals, a community,
after passing through the various stages of spiritual elevation may reach the ultimate
stage of ihs~ n a state also, through all its administrative machinery, may become mumin
(faithful), muslim (obedient), muttaq§ (God-conscious) and muhsin
(godly). In fact, the ideals aimed at by Islam are fully achieved only when the whole
community accepts them and a muttaq§ and muhsin state comes into existence.
The highest form of civilization, based on goodness, is then reached.
Let us now look at the mechanism of spiritual
training which Islam has laid down to prepare individuals and society for this process.
The methods that Islam lays down for spiritual
development rest, in addition, obviously, to faith (Im~ n), on five pillars.
The first is the Prayer (Salat), which brings man
into communion with Allah five times a day, reviving his remembrance, reiterating
his fear, developing his love, reminding him of this Divine commands again, and thus
preparing him for obedience to Allah. It is obligatory to offer some of these
Prayers in Congregation as well so that the whole community and society may be prepared to
journey on the path of spiritual development.
The second is the Fast (Sawm), which for a full
month every year trains each man individually, and the Muslim community as a whole, in
righteousness and self-restraint,; it enables society, the rich and the poor alike, to
experience hunger, and prepares people to undergo any hardships in their search to please Allah.
The third is the Almsgiving (Zakat), which develops
the sense of monetary sacrifice, sympathy and co-operation among Muslims. There are people
who wrongly interpret Zakat as a tax; in fact, the spirit underlying Zakat is entirely
different from that of a tax. The real meaning of Zakat is sublimity and purification. By
using this word, Islam seeks to impress on man the fact that, inspired by a true love of Allah,
the monetary help which he renders to his brethren will uplift and purify his soul.
The fourth is the Pilgrimage (Hajj), which aims at
fostering that universal brotherhood of the faithful which is based on the worship of Allah,
and which results in a worldwide movement that has been responding to the call of Truth
throughout the centuries and will, Allah willing, go on answering this call till
The last is Jihad, that is, exerting oneself to the utmost to
disseminate the word of Allah and to make it supreme, and to remove all the
impediments to Islam ¾ through tongue or pen or sword. the aim is to live a life of
dedication to the cause of Allah and, if necessary, to sacrifice ones life in the
discharge of this mission. This is the highest spirituality, rooted in the real world,
which Islam wants to cultivate. Life-affirmation based on goodness and piety, and not
life-denial, is what Islam stands for. And this lends a unique character to Islam.
Taken from http://www.jamaat.org